1. Achermann Y, Vogt M, Leunig M, Wust J, Trampuz A. Improved diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection by multiplex polymerase chain reaction in sonication fluid of removed implants. J Clin Microbiol 2010; 48 (in press).

2. Bjerkan G, Witsø E, Bergh K. Sonication is superior to scraping for retrieval of bacteria in biofilm on titanium and steel surfaces in vitro. Acta Orthop 2009;

3. Bonkat G, Rieken M, Rentsch CA, Wyler S, Feike A, Schäfer J, Gasser T, Trampuz A, Bachmann A, Widmer AF. Improved detection of microbial ureteral stent colonisation by sonication. World J Urol 2010; (in press).

4. Carmen JC, Roeder BL, Nelson JL, Ogilvie RL, Robison RA, Schaalje GB, Pitt WG. Treatment of biofilm infections on implants with low-frequency ultrasound and antibiotics. Am J Infect Control 2005; 33: 78-82.

5. Clauss M, Trampuz A, Borens O, Bohner M, Ilchmann T. Biofilm formation on bone grafts and bone graft substitutes. Comparison of different materials by a standard in vitro test and microcalorimetry. Acta Biomaterialia 2010 (in press).

6. Del Pozo JL, Tran NV, Petty PM, Johnson CH, Walsh MF, Bite U, Clay RP, Mandrekar JN, Piper KE, Steckelberg JM, Patel R. Pilot study of association of bacteria on breast implants with capsular contracture. J Clin Microbiol 2009; 47:

7. Gorisek N, Bombek M, Kramberger S, Tomazic T, Dolinar D, Kocjancic B, Trampuz A. Sonication of removed orthopedic devices significantly improves the diagnosis of infection. 2010 (in revision).

8. Kobayashi N, Bauer TW, Tuohy MJ, Fujishiro T, Procop GW. Brief ultrasonication improves detection of biofilm-formative bacteria around a metal implant. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2007;457: 210-3.

9. Monsen T, Lövgren E, Widerström M, Wallinder L. In vitro effect of ultrasound on bacteria and suggested protocol for sonication and diagnosis of prosthetic infections. J Clin Microbiol. 2009; 47: 2496-501.

10. Piper KE, Jacobson MJ, Cofield RH, Sperling JW, Sanchez-Sotelo J, Osmon DR, Steckelberg JM, Mandrekar JN, Fernandez SM, Patel R. Microbiologic diagnosis of prosthetic shoulder infection using implant sonication. J Clin Microbiol 2009; 47:

11. Rieger UM, Pierer G, Lüscher NG, Trampuz A. Sonication of removed breast implants for improved detection of subclinical infection. Aesth Plast Surg 2009; 33: 404-408.

12. Rohacek M, Weisser M, Kobza R, Schoenenberger A, Pfyffer G, Frei R, Erne P, Trampuz A. Bacterial colonization and infection of electrophysiologic cardiac devices detected with sonication and swab culture. Circulation 2010 (in press).

13. Sendi P, Frei R, Maurer TB, Trampuz A, Zimmerli W, Graber P. Escherichia coli variants in periprosthetic joint infection: diagnostic challenges with sessile bacteria and sonication. J Clin Microbiol 2010; (in press)

14. Trampuz A, Osmon DR, Hanssen AD, Steckelberg JM, Patel R. Molecular and antibiofilm approaches to prosthetic joint infection. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2003; 69-88.

15. Trampuz A, Zimmerli W. Prosthetic joint infections: update in diagnosis and treatment. Swiss Med Wkly 2005; 135:

16. Trampuz A, Piper KE, Hanssen AD, Osmon DR, Cockerill FR, Steckelberg JM, Patel R. Sonication of explanted prosthetic components in bags for diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection is associated with a risk of contamination. J Clin Microbiol 2006; 44: 628-31.

17. Trampuz A., Piper KE, Jacobson MJ, Hanssen AD, Unni KK, Osmon DR, Mandrekar JN, Cockerill FR, Steckelberg JM, Greenleaf JF, Patel R. Sonication of removed hip and knee prostheses for diagnosis of infection. N Engl J Med 2007; 357:

18. Trampuz A, Zimmerli W. Diagnosis and treatment of implant-associated septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. Curr Infect Dis Rep 2008; 10: 394-403.

19. Trampuz A, Steinrücken J, Clauss M, Bizzini A, Furustrand U, Uckay I, Peter R, Bille J, Borens O. New methods for the diagnosis of implant-associated infections [article in French]. Rev Med Suisse 2010 (in press).

20. Tunney MM, Patrick S, Gorman SP, Nixon JR, Anderson N, Davis RI, Hanna D, Ramage G. Improved detection of infection in hip replacements. A currently underestimated problem. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1998; 80: 568-72.

21. Zimmerli W, Trampuz A, Ochsner PE. Prosthetic-joint infections. N Engl J Med 2004; 351:



European Bone and Joint Infection Society (EBJIS)

European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID), Study Group on Implant-Associated Infections (ESGIAI)

Musculosceletal Infection Society of North America (MSIS)

European Federation of National Associations of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (EFORT)